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    <p><strong>&ldquo;Everyone can rise above their circumstances and achieve success if they are dedicated to and passionate about what they do&rdquo;,</strong> Mandela once said. He has fought for&nbsp;social justice&nbsp;for 67 years, and has cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all individuals live together in harmony and with equal opportunities.</p>

    <p><strong>The Bahrain Center for Human Rights (BCHR)</strong> is issuing a statement on the occasion of &ldquo;Nelson Mandela International Day&rdquo; which is celebrated every year on the 18th of July. Nelson Mandela International Day has enjoyed 10 years of global support and solidarity since it was launched in 2009. This day is a perfect opportunity to mark the importance of the call for improving the conditions of prisoners and detainees in Bahrain according to the Nelson Mandela Rules which include all aspects of a dignified life. On the same occasion last year, BCHR released <a href="/sites/default/files/Bahraini%20Prisons%20%282%29.pdf">a report</a> about prisoner conditions in Bahraini prisons.</p>

    <p>The conditions in Bahraini prisons have been deteriorating; prisoners are housed in reform institutions that do not meet the Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners and provide a fertile environment for torture and ill-treatment to extract confessions.</p>

    <p>Human rights reports confirm that Bahraini prisons widely apply the &ldquo;policy&rdquo; of denial of treatment in a context of systematic revenge. This has led to the deterioration of the health conditions of prisoners and death cases inside prisons, using widespread physical and psychological torture and denial of basic rights.</p>

    <p>Based on this, BCHR calls upon the Bahraini authorities and the International Community concerned with prisoner conditions to:</p>

    <ul>
    <li>Immediately and unconditionally release all persons detained or convicted on charges related to their fundamental human rights, including their freedoms of expression and assembly;</li>
    <li>Ensure that prison authorities conform to Rules 27, 31, 36, 47 and all other rules as stipulated in the Nelson Mandela Rules;</li>
    <li>Allow the UN Special Rapporteur on Torture into the country to conduct an independent investigation in relations to prison conditions and the use of torture in detention facilities;</li>
    <li>Ensure the independence and well-functioning of the Prisoners and Detainees Rights Commission (PDRC), the Ombudsman, the National Institute for Human Rights, and the Special Investigations Unit so that they can take the necessary steps to investigate and prosecute all individuals and groups found guilty of mistreating or ailing in the mistreatment of detained individuals</li>
    </ul>

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    <p><strong><u>Introduction</u></strong></p>

    <p>The first six months of 2019 have seen increasing instances of intimidation and reprisals against human rights defenders,&nbsp; ​journalists, and active members of civil society in Bahrain. Amid the heightened crackdown on critical voices, the Bahraini government has regressed to a near total suppression of human rights. The Bahrain Center for Human (BCHR) has documented increased numbers of individuals arbitrarily arrested, an increased number of protests, and a significant number of citizenship revocation orders. All major opposition parties have now been dissolved, and stripped of their nationalities. Peaceful protesters ​ died from injuries inflicted by security forces, many caused by the use of birdshot pellets and tear gas.</p>

    <p>BCHR is gravely concerned about these recent developments in Bahrain, and the ongoing and increasingly severe and volatile crackdown on human rights defenders, members of the political opposition, journalists, and active members of civil society in the country.</p>

    <p>&nbsp;</p>

    <p><strong><u>Review</u></strong></p>

    <p>Between 01 January and 30 June 2019, BCHR has recorded a total of 261 arbitrary arrests in Bahrain, amongst which, 23 children, and 2 women.</p>

    <p>There have been 128 protests across the country; 5 of these protests were attacked. Numerous injuries were also reported during this time; injuries caused by birdshot pellets were the most common.</p>

    <p>Between 01 January and 10 May 2019 BCHR recorded a total of 521 individuals sentenced in politically motivated cases, amongst which 334 had their Bahraini citizenship revoked, rendering them stateless, whilst 46 were sentenced to life. &nbsp;</p>

    <p>Since January 2019, 109 individuals were sentenced to death in Bahrain while many countries have, each year, recommended that Bahrain move towards the abolition of the death penalty and impose an official moratorium on the death penalty (104 countries such as France, Germany, United Kingdom, and South Africa).</p>

    <p>Mohamed Ramadan, a 36-year-old soldier formerly serving at the Bahrain International Airport, and Husain Ali Moosa, 32 years old, are two Bahraini citizens that were sentenced to death in a collective judgment in 2014. They were convicted for their alleged involvement in the Al-Dair bombing of 14 February 2014 that resulted in the death of a policeman. On 16 November 2015, Bahrain&rsquo;s Court of Cassation &ndash; the highest court &ndash; rejected Mohamed&rsquo;s final appeal. He is currently awaiting imminent execution at Jau Prison. Sentenced to death in the same trial, Husain received a similar treatment. On 22 October 2018, the Court of Cassation overturned their verdict, on the basis of new medical reports, which may exhibit signs of torture. They are currently awaiting a re-trial. The order for a retrial of death-row inmates Mohammed Ramadan and Husain Ali Moosa certainly represented a positive step, given that their case rests on the coerced confession extracted from Mr Moosa. However, there is still a risk that Mr Ramadan and Mr Moosa will be subjected to an unfair trial as they have been prevented from attending recent hearings of their re-trial.</p>

    <p>&nbsp;</p>

    <p>The increased use of indiscriminate violence against critical voices in the country, and the targeted reprisals levied at human rights defenders and their families is demonstrative of the escalated campaign in Bahrain.</p>

    <p>Human rights defenders and members of Bahrain&rsquo;s civil society more generally are systematically being harassed and punished, with the use of torture and imprisonment. On 31 December 2018, Bahrain&rsquo;s top court, the Court of Cassation, upheld leading human rights defender Nabeel Rajab&rsquo;s five-year sentence for tweeting his criticism of the war in Yemen and the torture prisoners in Bahrain&rsquo;s notorious Jau Prison are subjected to. Hassan Mushaima, a former political opposition leader, continues to serve his life imprisonment. Female activist Najah Yusuf has been imprisoned for alleged social media activity, which includes Facebook posts calling for peaceful protests against the Bahrain Grand Prix 2017.</p>

    <p>The Court of Cassation also upheld the life sentence handed down to former political opposition leader, Sheikh Ali Salman. The lack of any credible political opposition in Bahrain restricts democracy in the country, and reduces avenues for criticism which could lead to a total suppression of the freedom of expression and association in the country.</p>

    <p>&nbsp;</p>

    <p><strong><u>Trying civilians in military courts</u></strong></p>

    <p>The use of military courts to try civilians in Bahrain has particularly been criticized by many countries who called for Bahrain to rescind law 105b, which allows for civilians to be prosecuted in military courts if accused of crimes under the terrorism law. Bahrain should, additionally, review the anti-terrorism law and its implementation to ensure that it is not utilized for abuse, harassment, and detention of dissenters.</p>

    <p>&nbsp;</p>

    <p>&nbsp;</p>

    <p><strong><u>Recommendations</u></strong></p>

    <p>Based on the above, it is a critical time to push for the end of the systematic clampdown on freedom of expression in Bahrain. The international community is to put more pressure on Bahrain to lift the restrictions on the right to the freedom of expression; it goes without saying that the right to exercise the most basic rights, one cannot expect any reforms or rule of law .BCHR calls on the International Community to pursue its effort to raise concern about the plight of civil society in Bahrain and calls on the Government of Bahrain to take concrete steps to foster an environment in which civil society can operate freely, in accordance with international standards.</p>

    <p>Further recommendations for the Government of Bahrain are:</p>

    <p>- Signing and acceding to the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights that aimed at abolishing the death penalty.</p>

    <p>- Repeal the amendment to the Military Law and to restore the law to its previous case, which prohibits the prosecution of civilians in military courts.</p>

    <p>- Provide basic guarantees for all civilians accused in military courts and re-trials in civil courts with the legal access of lawyers.</p>

    <p>-Immediate and unconditional release of all prisoners of conscious that were arrested as a result expressing their opinion through media.</p>

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    <p><strong>The Bahrain Center for Human Rights (BCHR) </strong>is highly concerned about the cases of Ahmad al Mullali and Ali Hakim Al Arab who are sentenced to death and urgently calls for the stop of all death sentences in Bahrain</p>

    <p>&nbsp;</p>

    <p>BCHR has received the information that the families of Ahmad al Mullali and Ali Hakim Al Arab both received a call from Jaw Prison, at 9 a.m. and 9.30 a.m. respectively, for a private interview at 2 p.m. in the form of a visit under the Criminal Procedure Code for Execution. These private visits are a dangerous indicator of a risk of execution tomorrow morning i.e. that the King of Bahrain has approved the execution of the above-mentioned individuals, sentenced to death, after having been accused and charged of killing the lieutenant Al Hammadi. The verdict was upheld on 06 May 2019 by the Court of Cassation.</p>

    <p>&nbsp;</p>

    <p><strong>Based on the above, BCHR urgently calls on the Government of Bahrain to:</strong></p>

    <ul>
    <li>Immediately refrain from the application of the Death Penalty against Ahmad al Mullali and Ali Hakim Al Arab</li>
    <li>Commute all death sentences;</li>
    <li>Establish a moratorium on the death penalty with a view to abolition;</li>
    <li>Investigate and prosecute all acts of torture, mistreatment, enforced disappearance; and,</li>
    <li>Establish procedures to ensure the fairness of all criminal trials and appeals.</li>
    </ul>

    <p>&nbsp;</p>

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    URGENT: Authorities in Bahrain execute both victims of torture Ahmed al-Mullali and Ali al-Arab 

    The Bahrain Center for Human Rights (BCHR) strongly condemns the execution by the Ministry of Interior of both citizens Ahmad al-Mullali and Ali al-Arab, who were executed, a few hours after their relatives visited them in Jau Central Prison. They were detained in relation with the criminal investigation of the assassination of a lieutenant, Hesham al-Hammadi.

    The Interior Ministry summoned Mullali’s and Arab’s relatives to an "special visit" on Friday, one of the official holidays in Bahrain and without specifying the number of visitors, which raised fear among both families of imminent execution of their sons. 

    On 06 May 2016, the Supreme Court of Appeals upheld the death sentence of detainees Ahmed Issa al-Mullali and Ali Ahmad al-Arab; in addition to life imprisonment for 19 others, as well as sentences of 15 years for 17 detainees, 10 years for 9 detainees and 5 years for 11 detainees including females. The same court decided to revoke the nationality of those sentenced to more than ten years in the same case, who were 47 detainees.

    The court largely based its judgment on confessions obtained under conditions of torture of Al-Mullali, Al-Arab and others, where detainees were subjected to ill-treatment and incommunicado detention in circumstances that can be considered as enforced disappearance. BCHR issued, in a previous statement, details about the physical and psychological torture that Al-Mullali and Al-Arab were subjected to in the isolation building in Jau Central Prison, including beating in sensitive places and electrocution, as well as forcing them to stand for long hours.

    Amnesty International and HUman Rights Watch both issued urgent appeals to rescue detainees Ali Muhammad al-Arab and Ahmad al-Mullali, noting that they received information about being tortured in Jaw Central Prison, and called on the Bahraini authorities to retry them in accordance with international standards of fair trial, and to stop extracting confessions under torture.

    The UN special rapporteur on torture has also reached out to try to save the fate of the two young men. In spite of the efforts from the International Community, the Bahraini authorities still carried out the executions on this day that represents a major stepback in the human rights situation in Bahrain and represents a lack of commitment from the Government of Bahrain to reforms. 

    Based on the above, the Bahrain Center for Human Rights (BCHR) calls for the following:

    • Abolish the death penalty and death sentences that have been declared

     

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    <div>
    <div>
    <div>
    <div>Bruxelles, 27/07/2019</div>

    <div><a href="https://eeas.europa.eu/diplomatic-network/bahrain_en" style="color: rgb(17, 85, 204);" target="_blank">https://eeas.europa.eu/diplomatic-network/bahrain_en</a></div>
    </div>
    </div>
    </div>

    <p>On 27 July the Kingdom of Bahrain executed three individuals convicted in two separate cases, according to a statement issued by the Public Prosecutor who did not identify them. Human rights groups have identified two of the individuals as Ali Al Arab and Ahmed Al Malali who were both sentenced to death in a mass trial on&nbsp;<a href="https://eeas.europa.eu/diplomatic-network/bahrain/65918/31%20January%202... style="color: rgb(17, 85, 204);" target="_blank">31 January 2018</a>&nbsp;on terrorism-related charges. Mr. Al Malali was sentenced in absentia. The identity of the third individual is currently unknown.&nbsp;<br />
    <br />
    The executions took place despite reported concerns that the convictions were based on confessions extracted under torture.&nbsp;&nbsp;<br />
    <br />
    The death penalty is a cruel, inhuman and degrading punishment, which fails to act as a deterrent and represents an unacceptable denial of human dignity and integrity.<br />
    No compelling evidence exists showing that the death penalty has a deterrent effect on crime or terrorism and any miscarriages of justice are irreversible.&nbsp;<br />
    <br />
    The European Union is unequivocally opposed to the use of capital punishment in all circumstances and calls on the Kingdom of Bahrain to introduce a moratorium on executions as a first step towards abolition.</p>

    <div>
    <p>-- -- Gaelle Dusepulchre Permanent representative to the EU FIDH / International Federation for Human Rights <a href="https://www.google.com/maps/search/Rue+de+la+Lini+re+15+-+1060+Bruxelles... style="color: rgb(17, 85, 204);" target="_blank">Rue de la Lini</a>&egrave;<a href="https://www.google.com/maps/search/Rue+de+la+Lini+re+15+-+1060+Bruxelles... style="color: rgb(17, 85, 204);" target="_blank">re 15 - 1060 Bruxelles</a> Tel : + 32 2 609 44 21 / GSM: + 32 479 49 19 59 <a href="https://www.fidh.org/International-Federation-for-Human-Rights/european-... style="color: rgb(17, 85, 204);" target="_blank">www.fidh.org</a><a href="https://twitter.com/search?q=fidh_eu&amp;src=typd" style="color: rgb(17, 85, 204);" target="_blank">Follow FIDH/EU on Twitter </a></p>
    </div>

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    <p>The Bahrain Center for Human Rights (BCHR) expresses its concern about receiving information on the deterioration of the health of former parliamentarian Osama al-Tamimi. He started dialysis after his kidney has stopped functioning. That was after a noticeable deterioration of&nbsp;his health after being summoned and interrogated by the Ministry of Interior in Bahrain.</p>

    <p>On Tuesday afternoon, 06 August 2019, police raided the house of former MP Osama al-Tamimi and arrested him arbitrarily after breaking his door and confiscating his personal phone. That happened in front of his family, who had no knowledge of the reason for his arrest. The forces that raided the house did not inform the family of the reason of the arrest, nor did they present a&nbsp;warrant.</p>

    <p>Hours after the arrest of al-Tamimi, the Ministry of Interior published a statement in which it announced that the arrest of al-Tamimi came on the background of a case of fraud and forgery filed against him in court. However, after hours of interrogation, Tamimi suffered a relapse that necessitated his immediate transfer to the hospital. Doctors diagnosed his condition as a stroke, that made&nbsp;him lose his ability to move and speak normally.</p>

    <p>Although al-Tamimi was not informed of his continued detention, especially as the police left the hospital after his family arrived, he was prevented from traveling when his family was trying to take him abroad for proper treatment. Since then, Tamimi is still undergoing treatment because of his deteriorating health. He started a new stage in dialysis after one of his kidneys stopped functionning.</p>

    <p>Tamimi had been subjected to harassment&nbsp;before his last arrest, where he was summoned for investigation more than once. In June of this year, he and his family were targeted by the police. He had then to turn to the US Embassy to get him and his family safely out of Bahrain, but the embassy refused to do so. Al-Tamimi has previously spoken of being harassed and threatened by security agents at different times, and Amnesty International published in its statement on 8 August the details of the harassment of al-Tamimi.</p>

    <p class="rteleft" dir="RTL"><a href="https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/mde11/0858/2019/en/">https://www.am...

    <p>In 2014, Tamimi was shot by unknown assailants before his membership in the Bahraini parliament was overthrown. That was after his repeated criticism of the performance of the prime minister and interior minister and his arrest for a year on charges of insulting a security man. Al-Tamimi&#39;s gym was hit by unidentified gunfire once and arson again without the Ministry of Interior reaching the unknown perpetrator.</p>

    <p class="rteleft" dir="RTL"><a href="http://www.alwasatnews.com/news/906150.html" target="_blank">http://www.alwasatnews.com/news/906150.html</a></p>

    <p>BCHR fears that the arrest of al-Tamimi is in retaliation against him, given the previous campaigns of threats, prosecution and targeting because of a position against the ongoing human rights violations in Bahrain and demanding that those responsible be held accountable. In particular, the manner in which he was arrested highlighted the arbitrary use of power by the authorities, and which is contrary to the principles of human rights. His denial of travel for treatment abroad suggests a violation of the right to liberty of movement, as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights indicates.</p>

    <p>Accordingly, BCHR calls on the Bahraini authorities to:</p>

    <ul>
    <li>Allow al-Tamimi to travel and receive appropriate treatment and ensure that it is not delayed or procrastinated so as not to experience new health relapses.</li>
    <li>Ensure that al-Tamimi is not summoned and prosecuted again.</li>
    </ul>

    <p>BCHR also calls on all Bahraini allies to pressure the Government of Bahrain to:</p>

    <ul>
    <li>Ensure all human rights, especially those related to freedom of opinion and expression and freedom of movement.</li>
    </ul>

    <p>&nbsp;</p>

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    <p>The Bahrain Center for Human Rights (BCHR) expresses its concern about the increasing harassment of former MP Osama al-Tamimi. He suffered a stroke in the brain that makes him lose his ability to move and speak normally, hours after his arrest and interrogation. Al-Tamimi&#39;s health is deteriorating as his kidney stopped functioning, which necessitates an urgent dialysis session.</p>

    <p>The Tamimi family says they are being harassed by policemen as they surround their house and ask anyone who enters for their identity, as if al-Tamimi is under house arrest.</p>

    <p>Now, according to al-Tamimi&rsquo;s daughter who <a href="https://www.instagram.com/p/B1vTnR1h6Bh/?igshid=4hb0bttvf5ou">posted</a> on her Instagram account, a group of policemen are breaking the doors of his house, apparently in an attempt to arrest al-Tamimi, who is in the hospital. She said she was scared because she was alone with her younger brother at home as her mother accompanied her father in the hospital. His brother-that looks like him- saw an arrest warrant issued against al-Tamimi that justify all these actions by the police.</p>

    <p>The Bahrain Center for Human Rights (BCHR) issued earlier a <a href="http://bahrainrights.org/en/node/9157?_ga=2.146450039.254936707.15670681... detailing the arrest of former MP Osama al-Tamimi and the fears that his health would deteriorate.</p>

    <p>Based on the above, BCHR calls on the Government of Bahrain to:</p>

    <ul>
    <li>Allow al-Tamimi to leave Bahrain for treatment abroad before his health deteriorates</li>
    <li>Stop harassing the Tamimi family who are concerned about his health and afraid of arbitrary actions they are subjected to.</li>
    </ul>

    <p>&nbsp;</p>

    <p>&nbsp;</p>

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    <p>Bahraini Shiites celebrate &ldquo;Ashura&rdquo; on the month of Muharram every year in honor of Imam Hussein, the son of Prophet Muhammad&rsquo;s daughter. Every year, Bahrain witnesses numerous violations related to Ashura, which reveal the false claims of the government to respect the constitutionally and legally guaranteed freedom of religion.</p>

    <p>With the beginning of Muharram this year (<strong>2019</strong>), which was on September 1, the Bahraini authorities have taken several measures that are considered official harassment. Authorities have summoned preachers and clerics for participating in religious lectures related to Ashura, interrogating and arresting some of them, and assaulting Ashura&#39;s rituals by removing banners bearing religious phrases.</p>

    <p>The Bahrain Center for Human Rights (BCHR) monitored, from <strong>1 to 8 September 2019</strong>, a large number of summonses, where <strong>23</strong> religious preachers from the Shi&#39;a community were summoned for investigation after delivering religious sermons. They are: Sheikh Abdulmohsen Al-Jamri, Sheikh Mounir Maatouq, Mahmoud Al-Ajimi, Mulla Qasim Zainuddin, Sheikh Fadhel Al-Zaki, Sheikh Jaafar Al-Sayegh, Sheikh Issa Eid, Sheikh Sadiq Rabie, Sheikh Jawad Al-Mirza, Sheikh Hamed Ashour, Sayed Jaber Al-Shahrakani, Al-Sheikh Mohammed Ali Al-Mahfouz, Sheikh Zuhair al-Khal, Sheikh Issa al-Momen, Sheikh Hussein Al-Asfour, Sheikh Hassan Al-Ali, Mulla Mahdi Al-Manami, Sheikh Aziz Al-Khodran, Sheikh Hani Al-Bina, Sheikh Abdul Amir Malallah, Sheikh Hassan Al-Shakhoori, Sayed Ahmed Al-Wadaie. Three of them were arrested before being subsequently released; they are Mulla Qasem Zain El-Din, Sheikh Mahmoud Al-Ajimi, and Sheikh Mounir Al-Maatouq.</p>

    <p>The authorities also summoned five preachers: Ali Hammadi, Ahmed Al-Awainati, Sayed Hadi Al-Biladi, Sayed Hani Al-Wadaie and Abdullah Al-Bouri. The authorities additionally summoned 6 Ma&rsquo;tam officials and 3 social activists.</p>

    <p>The Bahrain Center for Human Rights (BCHR) also monitored a number of attacks on Ashura rituals in various areas in Bahrain by police forces.&nbsp;BCHR recorded at least <strong>17 attacks on Ashura manifestations in different areas in Bahrain</strong> through the removal of banners and religious phrases related to Ashura. Among these areas are Muharraq, Bilad Al Qadeem, Al Markh, Abu Saiba, Al Musalla, Al Malikiyah and Nabih Saleh.</p>

    <p>BCHR believes that the Shiite clerics and preachers pay the tax of participating in these occasions every time through summonses and investigations leading to arrest and imprisonment.</p>

    <p>BCHR believes that these measures, which are still being carried out by the Bahraini authorities, are a clear restriction and an infringement on the freedom of religion, which the Government of Bahrain has stated to respect on many occasions. It is certainly a violation of the rights of individuals and groups to exercise their religious freedoms that the authorities must respect and promote respect for. It is also very unfortunate that the headlines of respect for human rights and freedoms are merely media allegations and have nothing to do with reality.</p>

    <p>&nbsp;</p>

    <p><strong>Bahrain Center for Human Rights therefore calls on the Government of Bahrain to: </strong></p>

    <ul>
    <li>Stop the restrictions on the participants in Ashura rituals.</li>
    <li>Launching more freedoms, especially religious freedoms.</li>
    <li>Work on increasing respect for freedom of religion and public and personal freedoms.</li>
    </ul>

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    On 17 September 2019, the Court of Appeal will hold a hearing on the application submitted by the legal team defending human rights defender Nabeel Rajab to consider altering the charges against him by community service as stipulated in the Alternative Penal Code.

    This is the second request submitted by the defense team after the court rejected the first request on 30 April 2019 submitted by the defense team to ask for the use of the alternative penal code adopted by Bahrain in 2018.

    The Bahraini authorities arrested Rajab on 13 June 2016 from his home and he has been detained since then.  On 15 January 15 2018, the Court of Cassation upheld Rajab's two-year prison sentence handed down due to the 2015 television interviews he gave on the human rights situation in Bahrain. In another case, Bahrain's Court of Appeal, on 31 December 2018, upheld the sentencing of Nabeel Rajab to five years in prison on charges related to freedom of expression and tweeting about the war in Yemen.

    Rajab is subjected to poor conditions in Jaw Central Prison where he is currently detained. Since he was transferred to Jaw Central Prison after being sentenced, he has been held in isolation from other human rights defenders and politicians, and is being held in a cell with nine other prisoners who have been sentenced in cases related to prostitution, which has affected Rajab's psychological state.

    The Bahrain Center for Human Rights (BCHR) strongly condemns the conditions under which Nabeel Rajab is being held, conditions which violate the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners, in particular rule C concerning detainees and persons in pre-trial detention. BCHR therefore calls on the Government of Bahrain to:

    - Drop all charges against human rights Defender Nabeel Rajab and release him

    - Let Rajab serve his sentence through community service, as according to the alternative penal code at least.

    - Stop isolating Rajab from other human rights and political prisoners.

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    On 17 September 2019, the Court of Appeal will hold a hearing on the application submitted by the legal team defending human rights defender Nabeel Rajab to consider altering the charges against him by community service as stipulated in the Alternative Penal Code.

    This is the second request submitted by the defense team after the court rejected the first request on 30 April 2019 submitted by the defense team to ask for the use of the alternative penal code adopted by Bahrain in 2018.

    The Bahraini authorities arrested Rajab on 13 June 2016 from his home and he has been detained since then.  On 15 January 15 2018, the Court of Cassation upheld Rajab's two-year prison sentence handed down due to the 2015 television interviews he gave on the human rights situation in Bahrain. In another case, Bahrain's Court of Appeal, on 31 December 2018, upheld the sentencing of Nabeel Rajab to five years in prison on charges related to freedom of expression and tweeting about the war in Yemen.

    Rajab is subjected to poor conditions in Jaw Central Prison where he is currently detained. Since he was transferred to Jaw Central Prison after being sentenced, he has been held in isolation from other human rights defenders and politicians, and is being held in a cell with nine other prisoners who have been sentenced in cases related to prostitution, which has affected Rajab's psychological state.

    The Bahrain Center for Human Rights (BCHR) strongly condemns the conditions under which Nabeel Rajab is being held, conditions which violate the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners, in particular rule C concerning detainees and persons in pre-trial detention. BCHR therefore calls on the Government of Bahrain to:

    - Drop all charges against human rights Defender Nabeel Rajab and release him

    - Let Rajab serve his sentence through community service, as according to the alternative penal code at least.

    - Stop isolating Rajab from other human rights and political prisoners.

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