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    Paris-Geneva-Manama, 29 August 2018– For the second time since 2013, the United Nations (UN) Working Group on Arbitrary Detention (WGAD) has issued an Opinion regarding the legality of the detention of Mr. Nabeel Rajab under international human rights law. In its second opinion, the WGAD held that the detention was not only arbitrary but also discriminatory. The 127 signatory human rights groups welcome this landmark opinion, made public on 13 August 2018, recognising the role played by human rights defenders in society and the need to protect them. We call upon the Bahraini Government to immediately release Nabeel Rajab in accordance with this latest request.

    In its Opinion(A/HRC/WGAD/2018/13), the WGAD considered that the detention of Mr. Nabeel Rajabcontravenes Articles 2, 3, 7, 9, 10, 11, 18 and 19 of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights and Articles 2, 9, 10, 14, 18, 19 and 26 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, ratified by Bahrain in 2006. The WGAD requested the Government of Bahrain to “release Mr. Rajab immediately and accord him an enforceable right to compensation and other reparations, in accordance with international law.

    This constitutes a landmark opinion as it recognises that the detention of Mr. Nabeel Rajab – President of the Bahrain Center for Human Rights (BCHR), Founding Director of the Gulf Centre for Human Rights (GCHR), Deputy Secretary General of FIDH and a member of the Human Rights Watch Middle East and North Africa Advisory Committee – is arbitrary and in violation of international law, as it results from his exercise of the right to freedom of opinion and expression as well as freedom of thought and conscience, and furthermore constitutes “discrimination based on political or other opinion, as well as on his status as a human rights defender.” Mr. Nabeel Rajab’s detention has therefore been found arbitrary under both categories II and V as defined by the WGAD.

    Mr. Nabeel Rajab was arrested on 13 June 2016 and has been detained since then by the Bahraini authorities on several freedom of expression-related charges that inherently violate his basic human rights. On 15 January 2018, the Court of Cassation upheld his two-year prison sentence, convicting him of “spreading false news and rumors about the internal situation in the Kingdom, which undermines state prestige and status” – in reference to television interviews he gave in 2015 and 2016. Most recently on 5 June 2018, the Manama Appeals Court upheld his five years’ imprisonment sentence for “disseminating false rumors in time of war”; “offending a foreign country” – in this case Saudi Arabia; and for “insulting a statutory body”, in reference to comments made on Twitter in March 2015 regarding alleged torture in Jaw prison and criticising the killing of civilians in the Yemen conflict by the Saudi Arabia-led coalition. The Twitter case will next be heard by the Court of Cassation, the final opportunity for the authorities to acquit him.

    The WGAD underlined that “the penalisation of a media outlet, publishers or journalists solely for being critical of the government or the political social system espoused by the government can never be considered to be a necessary restriction of freedom of expression,” and emphasised that “no such trial of Mr. Rajab should have taken place or take place in the future.” It added that the WGAD “cannot help but notice that Mr. Rajab’s political views and convictions are clearly at the centre of the present case and that the authorities have displayed an attitude towards him that can only be characterised as discriminatory.” The WGAD added that several cases concerning Bahrain had already been brought before it in the past five years, in which WGAD “has found the Government to be in violation of its human rights obligations.” WGAD added that “under certain circumstances, widespread or systematic imprisonment or other severe deprivation of liberty in violation of the rules of international law may constitute crimes against humanity.” 

    Indeed, the list of those detained for exercising their right to freedom of expression and opinion in Bahrain is long and includes several prominent human rights defenders, notably Mr. Abdulhadi Al-Khawaja,Dr.Abduljalil Al-Singaceand Mr. Naji Fateel– whom the WGAD previously mentioned in communications to the Bahraini authorities.

    Our organisations recall that this is the second time the WGAD has issued an Opinion regarding Mr. Nabeel Rajab. In its Opinion A/HRC/WGAD/2013/12adopted in December 2013, the WGAD already classified Mr. Nabeel Rajab’s detention as arbitrary as it resulted from his exercise of his universally recognised human rights and because his right to a fair trial had not been guaranteed (arbitrary detention under categories II and III as defined by the WGAD).The fact that over four years have passed since that opinion was issued, with no remedial action and while Bahrain has continued to open new prosecutions against him and others, punishing expression of critical views, demonstrates the government’s pattern of disdain for international human rights bodies.

    To conclude, our organisations urge the Bahrain authorities to follow up on the WGAD’s request to conduct a country visit to Bahrain and to respect the WGAD’s opinion, by immediately and unconditionally releasing Mr. Nabeel Rajab, and dropping all charges against him. In addition, we urge the authorities to release all other human rights defenders arbitrarily detained in Bahrain and to guarantee in all circumstances their physical and psychological health.

    This statement is endorsed by the following organisations:

    1- ACAT Germany – Action by Christians for the Abolition of Torture
    2- ACAT Luxembourg
    3- Access Now
    4- Acción Ecológica (Ecuador)
    5- Americans for Human Rights and Democracy in Bahrain – ADHRB
    6- Amman Center for Human Rights Studies – ACHRS (Jordania)
    7- Amnesty International
    8- Anti-Discrimination Center « Memorial » (Russia)
    9- Arabic Network for Human Rights Information – ANHRI (Egypt)
    10- Arab Penal Reform Organisation (Egypt)
    11- Armanshahr / OPEN Asia (Afghanistan)
    12- ARTICLE 19
    13- Asociación Pro Derechos Humanos - APRODEH (Peru)
    14- Association for Defense of Human Rights – ADHR 
    15- Association for Freedom of Thought and Expression – AFTE (Egypt)
    16- Association marocaine des droits humains - AMDH
    17- Bahrain Center for Human Rights
    18- Bahrain Forum for Human Rights
    19- Bahrain Institute for Rights and Democracy – BIRD
    20- Bahrain Interfaith
    21- Cairo Institute for Human Rights – CIHRS
    22- CARAM Asia (Malaysia)
    23- Center for Civil Liberties (Ukraine)
    24- Center for Constitutional Rights (USA)
    25- Center for Prisoners’ Rights (Japan)
    26- Centre libanais pour les droits humains - CLDH
    27- Centro de Capacitación Social de Panama
    28- Centro de Derechos y Desarrollo – CEDAL (Peru)
    29- Centro de Estudios Legales y Sociales – CELS (Argentina)
    30- Centro de Políticas Públicas y Derechos Humanos – Perú EQUIDAD
    31- Centro Nicaragüense de Derechos Humanos – CENIDH (Nicaragua)
    32- Centro para la Acción Legal en Derechos Humanos – CALDH (Guatemala)
    33- Citizen Watch (Russia)
    34- CIVICUS : World Alliance for Citizen Participation
    35- Civil Society Institute – CSI (Armenia)
    36- Colectivo de Abogados « José Alvear Restrepo » (Colombia)
    37- Collectif des familles de disparu(e)s en Algérie - CFDA
    38- Comisión de Derechos Humanos de El Salvador – CDHES 
    39- Comisión Ecuménica de Derechos Humanos – CEDHU (Ecuador)
    40- Comisión Nacional de los Derechos Humanos (Costa Rica)
    41- Comité de Acción Jurídica – CAJ (Argentina)
    42- Comité Permanente por la Defensa de los Derechos Humanos – CPDH (Colombia)
    43- Committee for the Respect of Liberties and Human Rights in Tunisia - CRLDHT
    44- Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative – CHRI (India)
    45- Corporación de Defensa y Promoción de los Derechos del Pueblo – CODEPU (Chile)
    46- Dutch League for Human Rights - LvRM
    47- European Center for Democracy and Human Rights – ECDHR (Bahrain)
    48- FEMED – Fédération euro-méditerranéenne contre les disparitions forcées 
    49- FIDH, in the framework of the Observatory for the Protection of Human Rights Defenders
    50- Finnish League for Human Rights
    51- Foundation for Human Rights Initiative – FHRI (Uganda)
    52- Front Line Defenders
    53- Fundación Regional de Asesoría en Derechos Humanos – INREDH (Ecuador)
    54- Groupe LOTUS (DRC)

    55- Gulf Center for Human Rights
    56- Human Rights Association – IHD (Turkey)
    57- Human Rights Association for the Assistance of Prisoners (Egypt)
    58- Human Rights Center – HRIDC (Georgia)
    59- Human Rights Center « Memorial » (Russia) 
    60- Human Rights Center « Viasna » (Belarus)
    61- Human Rights Commission of Pakistan
    62- Human Rights Foundation of Turkey
    63- Human Rights in China
    64- Human Rights Mouvement « Bir Duino Kyrgyzstan »
    65- Human Rights Sentinel (Ireland)
    66- Human Rights Watch
    67- I’lam – Arab Center for Media Freedom, Development and Research
    68- IFEX 
    69- IFoX Turkey – Initiative for Freedom of Expression 
    70- Index on Censorship 
    71- International Human Rights Organisation « Club des coeurs ardents » (Uzbekistan)
    72- International Legal Initiative – ILI (Kazakhstan) 
    73- Internet Law Reform Dialogue – iLaw (Thaïland)
    74- Institut Alternatives et Initiatives Citoyennes pour la Gouvernance Démocratique – I-AICGD (RDC)
    75- Instituto Latinoamericano para una Sociedad y Derecho Alternativos – ILSA (Colombia)
    76- Internationale Liga für Menschenrechte (Allemagne)
    77- International Service for Human Rights – ISHR
    78- Iraqi Al-Amal Association 
    79- Jousor Yemen Foundation for Development and Humanitarian Response

    80- Justice for Iran
    81- Justiça Global (Brasil)
    82- Kazakhstan International Bureau for Human Rights and the Rule of Law 
    83- Latvian Human Rights Committee
    84- Lawyers’ Rights Watch Canada
    85- League for the Defense of Human Rights in Iran
    86- League for the Defense of Human Rights – LADO Romania
    87- Legal Clinic « Adilet » (Kyrgyzstan)
    88- Liga lidských práv (Czech Republic)
    89- Ligue burundaise des droits de l’Homme - ITEKA (Burundi)
    90- Ligue des droits de l’Homme (Belgique)
    91- Ligue ivoirienne des droits de l’Homme 
    92- Ligue sénégalaise des droits humains – LSDH
    93- Ligue tchadienne des droits de l’Homme – LTDH
    94- Ligue tunisienne des droits de l’Homme – LTDH 
    95- MADA – Palestinian Center for Development and Media Freedom
    96- Maharat Foundation (Lebanon)
    97- Maison des droits de l’Homme du Cameroun - MDHC
    98- Maldivian Democracy Network
    99- MARCH Lebanon
    100- Media Association for Peace – MAP (Lebanon)
    101- MENA Monitoring Group
    102- Metro Center for Defending Journalists’ Rights (Iraqi Kurdistan)
    103- Monitoring Committee on Attacks on Lawyers - International Association of People’s Lawyers
    104- Movimento Nacional de Direitos Humanos - MNDH (Brasil)
    105- Mwatana Organisation for Human Rights (Yemen)
    106- Norwegian PEN
    107- Odhikar (Bangladesh)
    108- Pakistan Press Foundation
    109- PEN America
    110- PEN Canada
    111- PEN International
    112- Promo-LEX (Moldova)
    113- Public Foundation – Human Rights Center « Kylym Shamy » (Kyrgyzstan)
    114- RAFTO Foundation for Human Rights
    115- Réseau Doustourna (Tunisia)
    116- SALAM for Democracy and Human Rights
    117- Scholars at Risk 
    118- Sisters’ Arab Forum for Human Rights – SAF (Yemen)
    119- Suara Rakyat Malaysia - SUARAM
    120- Taïwan Association for Human Rights – TAHR
    121- Tunisian Forum for Economic and Social Rights – FTDES
    122- Vietnam Committee for Human Rights
    123- Vigilance for Democracy and the Civic State
    124- World Association of Newspapers and News Publishers – WAN-IFRA
    125- World Organisation Against Torture - OMCT, in the framework of the Observatory for the Protection of Human Rights Defenders
    126- Yemen Organisation for Defending Rights and Democratic Freedoms 
    127- Zambia Council for Social Development – ZCSD

    For more information, please contact:

    ·     FIDH: Maryna Chebat, mchebat@fidh.org, +33 6 48 05 91 57, Twitter: @MS_Chebat

    ·     OMCT: Delphine Reculeau, dr@omct.org, +41 228 09 49 39

    ·     GCHR: Khalid Ibrahim, khalid@gc4hr.org, +961 70 15 95 52

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    The Bahrain Center for Human Rights (BCHR) organized in cooperation with SALAM for Democracy and Human Rights the “Round Table” in Beirut entitled “The Crime of Enforced Disappearance” on the occasion of the the International Day Of The Victims Of Enforced Disappearances which happens to be tomorrow. A number of international human rights organizations, such as Amnesty International, MAP and MAHARAT, in addition to lawyers, participated in the round table.

    The round table consisted of five axes; the first was the defining of enforced disappearance and the conditions for its realization. The second talked about the importance of the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance. The third axis discussed the role of civil society in combating the crime of enforced disappearance. The fourth axis presented Bahraini laws and legislation that contributed to the crime of enforced disappearance. Finally, The Round Table ended with the fifth axis, which highlighted the state's responsibility for the crime of enforced disappearance.

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    Denying the crime of enforced disappearance will not solve it

    The Bahrain Center for Human Rights (BCHR) expresses deep concern over the continuous cases of enforced disappearances since 2017 and 2018. This came as a response to the silence of Bahrain's judicial authorities on the investigation of complaints of enforced disappearance monitored and documented by human rights organizations in Bahrain, including the Bahrain Center for Human Rights, as well as the lack of compensation to the victims for the suffering and torture they have been through.

    It is noteworthy that four of the recommendations that were stated in the UPR in May 2017, insisted on the need to urge Bahrain to sign, ratify and join the International Convention for the Protection of Persons from Enforced Disappearance, and harmonize its domestic legislations with this convention.

    The Bahrain Center for Human Rights believes that the absence of effective laws may be a major cause of the widespread practice of enforced disappearance, especially after the issuance of Decree No. 68 of 2014 amending Article 27 of Law No. 58 of 2006 which allowed the security authorities to detain individuals for 28 days without the need for a court order.

    On the occasion of the International Day of Victims of Enforced Disappearance, the Bahrain Center for Human Rights called on the Government of Bahrain to:

     

    - Implementation of the recommendations stated in the Universal Periodic Review (UPR), including signature, ratification and accession to the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance

    - Repeal of decree 68 of 2014, which allowed the security authorities to detain persons for 28 days without the guarantee of the accused to meet with his lawyer

    - The trial of officials and perpetrators of the crime of enforced disappearance within the security system

    - Appropriate Compensation for victims of enforced disappearance and their families for the suffering that was caused by this arbitrary measure.

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    The Bahrain Center for Human Rights issued a new report entitled "Death Courts". The report was issued in Arabic and English to highlight violations of military justice and to try civilians before and after the amendment of the Military Justice Act.

    In its report, which coincides with the International Day against the Death Penalty, the Center studies Bahrain's laws, which are a guarantee that the military judiciary does not have the jurisdiction to try civilians. And then explains the amendments to these laws in 2017, which gave these courts the powers to try civilians, after the King submitted a proposal for constitutional amendment to allow such trials under the pretext of combating terrorism. The report also documents the trial of civilians before military courts as well as monitoring and revealing facts about their sessions.

    The report concluded with recommendations to the Government of Bahrain urging them to repeal the constitutional amendment and the Military Justice Act, and also calling them to accede to the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights on the abolition of the death penalty. In addition, the center made recommendations to the international community to confront the death penalty and to review the situation of courts in Bahrain.  

    Full report here

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    <p>The Bahrain Center for Human Rights (BCHR) issued a statement today, October 10, on the occasion of the World Day against the Death Penalty. On this occasion, BCHR reiterated its request to the Government of Bahrain to sign and accede to the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights on the abolition of the death penalty.</p>

    <p>The Center pointed out that &quot;the death sentences have increased in recent years in the courts of Bahrain, especially in cases related to freedom of&nbsp; opinion and expression in the exercise of political rights. The number of sentenced 22 people, four of them are sentenced to a final verdict and four others were commuted to life sentences. Real fears of the implementation of these provisions, as happened in early 2017, as the government of Bahrain carried out the death penalty against three civilians did not have a fair trial.</p>

    <p>&quot;While 137 countries tend to abolish the death penalty, the government of Bahrain is expanding the scope of the legislation and issuing death sentences, and the Bahraini laws and legislation are full of articles that contain the death penalty either in the Penal Code or the Protection of Society from Acts of Terror Law, as the number of articles and items in these laws to more than 83 articles and a sentence of capital punishment.</p>

    <p>The Bahrain Center for Human Rights concluded its call for the international community, including the High Commissioner for Human Rights, to urge the government of Bahrain to freeze the death trials, and to join the countries that have abolished them.</p>

    <p>Bahrain Center for Human Rights</p>

    <p>10 &nbsp;October 2018</p>

    <p>&nbsp;</p>

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    <p>The Bahrain Center for Human Rights organized a press conference on the occasion of the &quot;International Day Against the Death Penalty&quot; with the participation of Maharat Foundation. The conference, which was held on 10 October, focused on the death penalty in Bahraini laws and legislation and the judicial rulings in civil and military cases.</p>

    <p>The speakers at the conference aimed to demonstrate Bahrain&#39;s violation of human rights through this punishment. Bahraini laws contain more than 83 articles. The legal adviser to the Bahrain Center for Human Rights, Ibrahim Serhan, said that &quot;the number of people sentenced to death is 22, four of whom are sentenced to a final sentence, and four others have been commuted to life&rdquo;. Serhan add that the treatment of prison guards is very poor and does not amount to international laws that respect human rights. After the amendment of Article 105 of the Constitution in 2017, the Military Justice Act was amended, which made the jurisdiction of the military courts to impose sanctions on civilians, which led to an increase in the death penalty in Bahrain,&quot; said Hussein al-Sharif, a representative of Maharat.</p>

    <p>The speakers also urged the Government of Bahrain to refrain from implementing such punishment, even if stipulated by the laws, in the same manner as the States that follow this method.</p>

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    Ms. Michelle Bachelet, United Nations High Commissioner

    Mr. Michel Forst, Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights defenders; 

    Prof. Nils Melzer, Special Rapporteur on Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment; 

    Dr. Dubravka Šimonović, Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women, its causes and consequences;

    Ms. Elizabeth BRODERICK, Ms. Alda FACIO, Ms. Ivana RADAčIć (Chair), Ms. Meskerem Geset TECHANE (Vice Chair), Ms. Melissa UPRETI, members of the Working Group on the issue of discrimination against women in law and in practice; 

    Mr. David Kaye, Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression; 

    Mr. José Guevara (chair), Ms. Leigh Toomey, Ms. Elina Steinerte, Mr. Sètondji Adjovi, and Mr. Seong-Phil Hong, members of the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention; 

    18 October 2018

    Dear High Commissioner and UN Experts,

    The undersigned organisations are writing to urge you to publicly condemn the appalling reprisals facing women human rights defenders Hajer Mansoor, Najah Yusuf and Medina Ali in Bahrain’s Isa Town Prison for women, which we believe are in retaliation to the attention their cases received from the United Nations and British Parliament. Concurrently, our organisations raise grave concern for the total inefficacy of Bahrain’s human rights mechanisms and urge you to publicly call for the end of these punitive measures as well as the immediate and unconditional release of the three women.

    On 16 September 2018, Mansoor, Yusuf and Ali were assaultedsoon after the publication of a report by the UN Secretary-Generaland a Westminster Debateraising their cases. The three women had been unjustifiably denied access to religious participation in previous weeks and, before the assault, they were attempting to join their fellow Bahraini inmates in the commemoration of Ashura.

    In response, prison guards, led by the head of Isa Town Prison, Major Mariam Albardoli, harshly beat Mansoor, Yusuf and Ali, and then kept them in solitary confinement for two hours. Following the incident, Mansoor was unable to stand and was hospitalised, having suffered a dangerous drop in her blood sugar levels and bruises on her hands and back. In addition Ali says Major Albardoli also punched her on her back in an area without any CCTV monitoring en route to the isolation cell.

    Following the assault, authorities have exacerbated their retaliation by applying restrictionson all inmates. Prison conditions have been made unbearable, prompting an inmate to attempt suicide. Family visits must now be conducted behind a glass barrier, which impedes any meaningful contact with family members. Furthermore, inmates are now locked in their cells for 23 hours a day, and their phone calls have been reduced to twice a week, when formerly it was three times a week. These changes significantly reduce the frequency with which families hear updates on the condition of inmates, especially since calls with legal representation are also deducted from allocated calls to family members. We are also concerned that 13 Russian inmates have deemed it necessary to launch a hunger strike to protest prison conditions. We fear that the protest may soon extend to a collective hunger strike of all Bahraini inmates if the situation does not improve.

    This collective punishment has triggered international criticism, with members of the UK Parliamentraising concerns and international media outletsreporting on the events. However, we are deeply alarmed by Bahrain’s response. Oversight bodies have thus far failed to support Mansoor, Yusuf and Ali by ensuring they conduct independent investigations into their allegations. Furthermore, the claim of Bahrain’s Ministry of Interiorthat Mansoor “tried to hurt herself by hitting her body and lying on the floor”is implausible. We also condemn the National Institution for Human Rights (NIHR)’sstatementof 2 October which only whitewashedthe assault by Major Albardoli and the prison guards, as “within reasonable use of force”, even though it led to the hospitalisation of an inmate. Their investigation continues by claiming that there was “no case of intentional denial”of basic rights such as family visitations and phone calls, which is in stark contradiction with the testimonyprovided by the three women.

    Last month, the UN Secretary-Generaldetailed the “ongoing trend of harassment and intimidation” against representatives of Bahrain’s civil society who cooperate with the UN, and noted the persecution of family members of Sayed Ahmed Al-Wadaei, the son-in-law of Mansoor, who is Director of Advocacy of the Bahrain Institute for Rights and Democracy (BIRD). The timing of these recent reprisals against Mansoor, Yusuf and Ali suggests, once again, a coordinated effort by the Bahraini authorities to avert international criticism by intimidating and punishing prisoners of conscience and human rights defenders.

    Bahrain is now a member of the UN Human Rights Council, and while its oversight bodies have completely failed to address the situation, it is vital that you make your position clear by publicly condemning these abusive restrictions, which violate the UN Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners.

    On 3 October, Mansoor, Yusuf and Ali calledfor the urgent intervention of “UN Special Rapporteurs to stop the violations we are subjected to, and to expose the falsity of the human rights organisations and institutions that follow the regime in Bahrain.” In support of these demands, they began a hunger strike on 14 October, and are now being held at the prison clinic in critical conditions. It is imperative, now more than ever, to use the weight of your office to publicly defend them, by:

    a.Issuing a public statement calling for an end to the reprisals against Hajer Mansoor, Najah Yusuf and Medina Ali, as well as the ongoing restrictions on phone calls, family visits and time outside the cell imposed on all inmates;

    b.Calling on Bahrain to immediately and unconditionally release those women who are imprisoned on politicised charges related to their human rights activities, and those of their relatives;

    c.Publicly calling for an independent investigation into the allegation of torture and mistreatment against female prisoners, to ensure perpetrators, including Major Albardoli, are hold to account.

    d.Urging the Government of Bahrain, in light of its recent appointment as Member of the Human Rights Council, to strictly abide by its international obligations, including by allowing the Special Rapporteur on Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment to visit the country.

    Yours Sincerely,

    Americans for Democracy & Human Rights in Bahrain (ADHRB)

    Bahrain Center for Human Rights (BCHR)

    Bahrain Institute for Rights and Democracy (BIRD)

    CIVICUS

    European Centre For Democracy and Human Rights (ECDHR)

    Front Line Defenders

    Gulf Centre for Human Rights (GCHR)

    Index on Censorship

    The International Service for Human Rights (ISHR)

    Brian Dooley, Senior Advisor, Human Rights First (HRF)

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    Following democracy protests in Bahrain in February 2011, al Salman was unjustly imprisoned for six months. She was threatened, beaten and subject to acts of humiliation and torture by the authorities because of her trade union activities. 

    Unwavering commitment to democracy, equality and human and trade union rights despite public harassment by authorities

    In defiance of the restrictions imposed on her, al Salman has fought, without hesitation, for the rights of teachers in Bahrain to organise free from political interference. She has challenged the authorities in Bahrain to fully respect the rights of teachers in accordance with International Labour Organisation (ILO) conventions. 

    Following her release from prison, al Salman has continued to be a vocal champion for the rights of teachers and students, despite continued threats, intimidation and detentions.

    An ardent campaigner for the rights of women and girls in Bahrain and the region, she has been an active representative and contributor to the Education International (EI) World Women’s Conference, UN Commission on the Status of Women and other meetings to advance the goal of equality for women and girls.

    Under al Salman’s leadership, the Bahrain Teachers Association (BTA) is a recognised and vital member of the EI global trade union family. She continues to work to ensure a voice for Bahrain's teachers within EI. She has also contributed to efforts to build EI's regional structures for member organisations within the Arab countries in the Middle East.

    Read full article.

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    Five Bahraini human rights organizations, signatories to this joint statement, express their deep concern at the information they received about the intention of the German authorities to deport Bahraini citizen Ahmed Nawar from their territories to Bahrain after examining his asylum application and protection. Nawar, who is a member of a Bahraini targeted political opposition group, has been applying for asylum in Germany since 2015. The signatory organizations fear that Nawar will be at risk if he will be deported to Bahrain, especially with increasing number of cases of activists or detainees who been tortured under interrogation or custody. Nawar participated in many anti-arbitrary activities in Bahrain during his stay in Germany. He also participated in different media programs, expressed his views on social media, and delivered speeches opposing the Bahraini government's policy. He fears that all these acts will be used against him if he is deported to Bahrain. Nawar has been living with concern since Germany authorities decision to deport him from the court, the local police may implement the decision at any time. This is not the first time that Bahraini nationals have been deported from countries where they have applied for asylum or taken refuge in order to escape the influence of the security agency in Bahrain. The Dutch authorities deported Bahraini citizen Ali Shuwaikh, who arrived at Bahrain airport late on Saturday 20th October where he was arrested on arrival and transferred to an unknown destination. In January 2014, Omani authorities handed over Bahraini citizen Sadiq Jafar al-Shaabani, age 31, after being arrested by the Omani intelligence service. According to information obtained by human rights organizations in Bahrain, al-Shaabani was severely tortured in the Criminal Investigation Directorate (CID) building. Bahrain National Security Agency responsible for the arrests is considered to be the deadliest body in the country. The results of the investigations of the Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry concluded that this Agency practices torture and physical and psychological ill-treatment like what happens to Abdul Kareem Fakhrawi and Ali Issa Saqr. The fact-finding committee recommended freezing the authorities of this Agency in terms of criminal arrest and investigation and limiting its work to research and investigation. However, the government reintroduced the authority of investigation and re-arrest of this agency since January 2017. Several international human rights organizations have issued reports confirming the torture and ill-treatment systemically practiced by the security authorities in Bahrain, including Amnesty International, which issued a report in 2017 entitled "No one can protect you", which contained details of claims and complaints of torture, including the case of woman human rights activist Ibtisam al-Sayegh where she been physical tortured and sexual assaulted during interrogation at National Security Agency headquarters in Muharraq in June 2017.   The signatories to this joint statement hold the German authorities responsible for the safety of Bahraini citizen Ahmed Nawar and invite them to reconsider their decision, especially when they tolerates Nawar's torture and inhuman treatment once he deport to Bahrain. * Bahrain Center for Human Rights * Bahrain Forum for Human Rights * Bahrain German Organization for Human Rights and Democracy * Gulf Institute for Democracy and Human Rights * Salam for Democracy and Human Rights

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    Five Bahraini human rights organizations, signatories to this joint statement, express their deep concern at the information they received about the intention of the German authorities to deport Bahraini citizen Ahmed Nawar from their territories to Bahrain after examining his asylum application and protection. Nawar, who is a member of a Bahraini targeted political opposition group, has been applying for asylum in Germany since 2015. The signatory organizations fear that Nawar will be at risk if he will be deported to Bahrain, especially with increasing number of cases of activists or detainees who been tortured under interrogation or custody.

    Nawar participated in many anti-arbitrary activities in Bahrain during his stay in Germany. He also participated in different media programs, expressed his views on social media, and delivered speeches opposing the Bahraini government's policy. He fears that all these acts will be used against him if he is deported to Bahrain. Nawar has been living with concern since Germany authorities decision to deport him from the court, the local police may implement the decision at any time.

    This is not the first time that Bahraini nationals have been deported from countries where they have applied for asylum or taken refuge in order to escape the influence of the security agency in Bahrain. The Dutch authorities deported Bahraini citizen Ali Shuwaikh, who arrived at Bahrain airport late on Saturday 20th October where he was arrested on arrival and transferred to an unknown destination.

    In January 2014, Omani authorities handed over Bahraini citizen Sadiq Jafar al-Shaabani, age 31, after being arrested by the Omani intelligence service. According to information obtained by human rights organizations in Bahrain, al-Shaabani was severely tortured in the Criminal Investigation Directorate (CID) building.

    Bahrain National Security Agency responsible for the arrests is considered to be the deadliest body in the country. The results of the investigations of the Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry concluded that this Agency practices torture and physical and psychological ill-treatment like what happens to Abdul Kareem Fakhrawi and Ali Issa Saqr. The fact-finding committee recommended freezing the authorities of this Agency in terms of criminal arrest and investigation and limiting its work to research and investigation. However, the government reintroduced the authority of investigation and re-arrest of this agency since January 2017.

    Several international human rights organizations have issued reports confirming the torture and ill-treatment systemically practiced by the security authorities in Bahrain, including Amnesty International, which issued a report in 2017 entitled "No one can protect you", which contained details of claims and complaints of torture, including the case of woman human rights activist Ibtisam al-Sayegh where she been physical tortured and sexual assaulted during interrogation at National Security Agency headquarters in Muharraq in June 2017.
     
    The signatories to this joint statement hold the German authorities responsible for the safety of Bahraini citizen Ahmed Nawar and invite them to reconsider their decision, especially when they tolerates Nawar's torture and inhuman treatment once he deport to Bahrain.

    * Bahrain Center for Human Rights
    * Bahrain Forum for Human Rights
    * Bahrain German Organization for Human Rights and Democracy
    * Gulf Institute for Democracy and Human Rights
    * Salam for Democracy and Human Rights

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